Disease of maze ūüĆĹ


 1.Northern Corn Leaf Blight 

   Pathogen: 




Exserohilum turcicum

   Symptoms: 

Long, elliptical gray-green or tan lesions on leaves.

   Management: 

Use of resistant hybrids, crop rotation, and


application of fungicides.

2.Southern Corn Leaf Blight 

   Pathogen: 

Bipolaris maydis


   Symptoms:

 Small, than lesions with dark borders on leaves.

   Management:

 Planting resistant hybrids, crop rotation, and fungicides.


3.Gray Leaf Spot

  Pathogen:

Cercospora zeae-maydis

   Symptoms: 


Narrow, rectangular lesions that are gray to tan in color.

   Management:

 Resistant hybrids, crop rotation, and use of fungicides.

4.Common Rust

   Pathogen: 

Puccinia sorghi

   Symptoms:


 Small, cinnamon-brown pustules on leaves.

   Management:

Growing resistant hybrids and applying fungicides.


 5.Southern Rust

   Pathogen: 

Puccinia polysora

   Symptoms: 


Small, circular, orange to tan pustules on leaves.

   Management: 

Resistant hybrids and fungicides.


6.Maize Dwarf Mosaic Virus

   Pathogen: 

Maize dwarf mosaic virus

   Symptoms:


 Mosaic patterns on leaves, stunted growth.

   Management: 

Planting resistant hybrids and controlling aphid vectors.


7.Maize Lethal Necrosis 

   Pathogen: 

Co-infection of Maize chlorotic mottle virus ( and a potyvirus such as Sugarcane mosaic virus 

   Symptoms: 


Chlorotic mottling, necrosis, stunted growth, plant death.

   Management: 

Resistant hybrids, vector control, and quarantine measures.


 8.Anthracnose Leaf Blight

   Pathogen:

Colletotrichum graminicola

   Symptoms:


 Water-soaked lesions that turn brown with age, black fungal structures.

  Management: 

Resistant hybrids, crop rotation, and fungicides.


9.Stalk Rot

   Pathogen: 

Various pathogens, including Fusarium spp.Gibberella zeae and Colletotrichum graminicola

   Symptoms: 


Discolored, weakened stalks that may lodge.

   Management: 

Resistant hybrids, balanced fertilization, and proper irrigation practices.


 10.Diplodia Ear Rot

   Pathogen: 

Stenocarpella maydis

   Symptoms:


 White mold growth on ears, lightweight and shrunken kernels.

   Management:

 Resistant hybrids, crop rotation, and timely harvesting.


11.Fusarium Ear Rot

   Pathogen:

 Fusarium verticillioides

   Symptoms: 


White to pinkish mold growth on kernels, kernel discoloration.

   Management: 

Resistant hybrids, crop rotation, and fungicides.


12.Gibberella Ear Rot

   Pathogen:

Gibberella zeae (Fusarium graminearum)

   Symptoms: 


Red or pink mold growth on kernels, kernel discoloration.

   Management: 

Resistant hybrids, crop rotation, and timely harvesting.


13.Stewart’s Wilt

   Pathogen: 

Pantoea stewartii

   Symptoms:


 Water-soaked streaks on leaves, wilting, and death of young plants.

   Management: 

Resistant hybrids and controlling flea beetle vectors.


14.Bacterial Leaf Streak

   Pathogen:

 Xanthomonas vasicola pv. vasculorum

   Symptoms: 


Narrow, water-soaked streaks on leaves, often with a wavy margin.

   Management: 

Resistant hybrids and crop rotation.


 15.Tar Spot

   Pathogen: 

Phyllachora maydis

   Symptoms: 


Black, tar-like spots on leaves.

   Management: 

Resistant hybrids, crop rotation, and fungicides.


 16.Crazy Top

   Pathogen: 

Sclerophthora macrospora

   Symptoms: 


Abnormal growth such as proliferation of tassels and excessive tillering.

   Management: 

Proper field drainage to avoid waterlogged conditions.


17.Downy Mildew

   Pathogen: 

Various species of  Peronosclerospora

   Symptoms: 


Chlorosis, stunted growth, and downy fungal growth on the underside of leaves.

   Management: 

Resistant hybrids, seed treatments, and crop rotation.


 18.Head Smut

   Pathogen: 

Sporisorium reilianum

   Symptoms:


 Smut galls replacing kernels and ears, stunted growth.

   Management: 

Resistant hybrids and crop rotation.


 19.Common Smut

   Pathogen: 

Ustilago maydis

   Symptoms:


 Tumor-like galls on ears, kernels, leaves, and tassels.

   Management: 

Resistant hybrids and removing infected plants.


20.Charcoal Rot

   Pathogen: 

Macrophomina phaseolina

   Symptoms:


 Root and lower stem rot, blackened roots and stems, wilting.

   Management:

 Resistant hybrids, crop rotation, and managing plant stress.


These diseases can significantly impact maize yield and quality, and effective management typically involves a combination of resistant varieties, cultural practices, and chemical controls.


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